Sustainable by design 2050

An initiative of the UIA

Velux model home 2020

Activehouse

Sapienza_Universit___di_Roma

Architekturclips

Haus Rauch

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Sebastian El khouli

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Sebastian El khouli

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Beat Bühler

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Beat Bühler

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Beat Bühler

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Sebastian El khouli

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Sebastian El khouli

Haus Rauch

Photographer: Beat Bühler

Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Haus Rauch
Architect
Roger Boltshauser, Zürich und Martin Rauch, Schlins
Engineers/Specialists
Martin Rauch Earth Construction
Location
Western Europe - Austria - Schlins
Climate Zone
mountains
Design status
build
Date of completion
2007
Type
Housing
Site area (m²)
631
Footprint (m²)
147
GFA (m²)
290
NFA (m²)
200
NFA/GFA
0.69
Density
0.46
Gross Volume (GV) (m³)
1080
Primary Energy (kWh/m²a)
9.45
Heating Energy (kWh/m²a)
66
Cooling / Heating-System

Heating and Hot Water: In the Rauch House, 100 % of the energy needed for heating and for making hot water comes from renewable sources of energy. A storage tank with integrated boiler for the domestic hot water is located on the second floor. This storage tank is fed by three heat generating sources. It is fed primarily by the 14 m2 collector surface on the roof and secondarily by the masonry heater with integral cooking stove, which is located in the kitchen and is fueled with firewood. This is expedient for several reasons, since every resident of the community of Schlins receives 3 m3 of wood from the community forest to aid their resource management. This masonry heater is equipped with absorbers, which function in a self-regulating way to send approximately 50 % of the thermal energy produced to the storage tank using merely gravity. The absorbers can be shut off if needed. In addition, a third heating source is located in the basement: a pellet heater that heats the storage tank whenever both of the other sources supply dearth energy. The controls for heating the house are also integrated into this device. From the storage tank, the wall heating is ultimately supplied with the necessary heat. Wall heating serves to distribute the heating. Despite some disadvantages, such as restricted space for setting up wardrobes and cabinets, and difficulties in hanging pictures with nails, this system holds many advantages. One of the most important is the possibility of using solar gains directly. The rammed-earth floors in the heated living spaces can store the penetrating energy from the solar radiation for a depth of up to 9 cm, and they give this heat back slowly. Thus it would not be sensible to heat up the floor additionally, since that would reduce the floor's ability to absorb the solar energy. Ventilation , Cooling: The installation of controlled ventilation or a cooling system was consciously dispensed with. The ventilation occurs via circulation: The air heated behind the large glass pane in the living room is carried through a duct in the ceiling to the double-height studio. There, the warm air can be used to heat the upper air space, or in summer, it is discharged to the outside through vents. The food pantry has a natural cooling system. From the rock cellar, cool air is introduced through a duct at floor level. An exhaust outlet at the ceiling conveys air, which is fed out the roof through the chimney.

Use of renewable ressources - low tech
use of high thermal mass
Use of renewable ressources - high tech
solar heating, energy storage
Renewable, recycled, recyclable and innovative materials

Dismantling: The goal of Martin Rauch was to build a house that could simply crumble apart at the end of its lifetime, without contaminating the building site with any harmful substances or foreign material. A total of 85 % of the building materials were obtained directly from the building pit, as was the material for the floor tiles, washbasins, and kitchen tiling that were fabricated in the workshop located a mere 500 m away. The remaining building materials came, to the greatest extent possible, from the nearby surroundings-such as oak from southern Germany for the window frames or the timber for the floor construction obtained from the nearby woods. Upon dismantling the house, this material could be left behind in the building pit without causing any contamination of the environment; only the constituent parts of the building services (wiring, piping, etc.), the steel beams, and the reinforced ring beams would need to be removed from the earthen material. The earthen material itself can be recycled after dismantling, since it was not treated with any additives whatsoever. Because the reused earth would have the same attributes as the original material without undergoing energy-intensive reprocessing, it would be genuine recycling -and not downcycling, which is normally the practice. All the wood building elements either have a natural finish or they are oiled or treated with casein primer, making them materials and products that can be thrown away or further processed without any environmental pollution.

Key Sustainability aspects
solar building integration, vernacular building strategies, renewable building materials, recycling and reuse, ecological building materials, innovative bulding materials, participation of users in planning process
Sustainability rated
Other
Social and ethical responsibility

An important aspect of social sustainability in this project is that it sends a positive signal about earthen architecture to emerging and developing countries. It is important to show countries of the developing world that earth can also be successfully deployed as a building material where we live, and that European standards can be realized with ecological materials and lots of manual labor. Society: The close collaboration with regionally based technical consultants and realization of the building with the aid of craftsmen from the town and nearby villages has a large impact on people's identification with the built surroundings. Furthermore, traditional knowledge from the region could thus also flow into the planning and implementation.

Ressource efficiency and environmental impact

A total of 85 % of the building materials were obtained directly from the building pit, as was the material for the floor tiles, washbasins, and kitchen tiling that were fabricated in the workshop located a mere 500 m away. The remaining building materials came, to the greatest extent possible, from the nearby surroundings-such as oak from southern Germany for the window frames or the timber for the floor construction obtained from the nearby woods. The 45-cm-thick rammed-earth wall is built of 100 % excavated material. The material was sieved through 30 mm screens at the nearby workplace, transported back to the construction site, and tamped in the formwork while still moist. The amount of embodied energy lies solely in the transport and the pneumatic ramming used. The mud bricks, which are also made of excavated material, were fired-a process that contributes the largest amount of the embodied energy.

Economic lifecycle perfomance

Cost-Effectiveness: The new creative and constructive dimensions of this rammed-earth house necessitated additional manual effort and craftsmanship. Hence the total costs are strongly affected by the labor costs. Due to procedural experiments, tests series, and special solutions, approximately 30 % of the building costs must be posted under development costs. The share of manual and locally rendered work is roughly 55 % of the total expense, whereby building the formwork and carrying out the ramming alone constitute roughly 35 %. It must be considered that not only the built structure, but also the building material itself was produced on-site through manual labor. Significant development potential for earthen architecture lies in making improvements in the local processing of materials and the technology, as well as in prefabricating earthen elements. In low-wage countries, the craftsmanly construction of rammed-earth buildings remains an economic alternative. There, the Rauch House could be built for around 60 % less money. In those countries however, earth as a building material often has the image of being a backward technology. The Rauch House provides evidence to the contrary; it is a perfect example and model for modern earthen architecture in architectural, constructive, and physical respects. Dismantling: The goal of Martin Rauch was to build a house that could simply crumble apart at the end of its lifetime, without contaminating the building site with any harmful substances or foreign material

Contextual performance and impact

Regionalism: For the Rauch House great value was placed on the use of regional materials as well as on collaboration with craftsmen from the town and nearby villages. Ecological, social, and economic considerations are clearly behind this attitude. Proximity to the raw materials and processing facilities is one of the key ideas of sustainability, yet in addition, if the value added from every step in the work remains with the businesses in the region, jobs for skilled workers can thus be created and social networks established. By strengthening the region in this way, a foundation is established for counteracting the exodus from rural communities